How to buy Dutch achieve the dream: no more than two-thirds of families from the housing

News reporters surging Source: News surging Currently, China first- and second-tier cities real estate market hot spots into the "steady decline in value" stage, but for many young city who work hard, it still seems out of reach in the short term to buy a house。
And around is exploring the establishment of "buy rent simultaneously," housing system, all indicate that the rental market is about to usher in the "golden period of development."。 Xinhua News Agency reported that China's housing rental market, about 90% of the rental housing for individuals, and in some countries mature real estate market, professional leasing companies provide housing accounted for about 30%。 With the introduction of intensive policies, this situation is bound to improve。
August 1, the Government of Hangzhou explore the construction of public rental housing and rental market combined with the "big lease" new platform for one, two, three market linkage development, to form an effective complement to the real estate sales market。 August 7, the Shanghai municipal government formally approved the "Zhangjiang Science City construction planning", new residential construction area of about 9.2 million square meters, ninety percent for rental housing。 Economic Information Daily said, citing a report of the data, by 2025, China leasing market will grow to one trillion yuan by 2030 will exceed one trillion yuan。
In addition, the Beijing Municipal Construction Committee announced the "Beijing common property housing management Interim Measures" comments to the public。
According to the approach, Beijing intends to push a new "common property housing", buy a house with the government a total of property rights, this policy had been piloted in a number of cities。 Internationally, the Netherlands, a large part of the total social housing stock is social rental sector in the Netherlands was founded in the early 20th century – housing associations owned and managed。
The presence of non-profit housing associations to protect the low-income residents may rental housing at a reasonable price, and for the hope of households purchase, buyers can discount to the market price discount ranging from the purchase of discount houses, but the future sale of needs and housing associations shared housing value-added part of 50% of earnings, in addition, housing associations have a priority right to repurchase。 It also makes two-thirds of the Netherlands is not self-housing families can live in peace。 Housing Association has a fairly unique position in the Netherlands, it has a relatively high degree of administrative freedom, and overall financial position。 Financial, housing associations in different parts of the region according to congenital conditions and circumstances, decided to different portfolios, and some housing associations try to sell the lot of poor housing stock, and maintain rental housing in a better place lots; some adequate regional population , while in other areas there is a certain stock of housing, then plan the further expansion。
Dutch construction area accounts for only% of land area we are talking about actually refers to the whole of the Netherlands Kingdom of the Netherlands。 Netherlands (Holland) in the literal meaning refers to low-lying countries, actually said that native Dutch, because most of the land and the Netherlands are below sea level one meter, because the most famous territory of North Holland and South Holland named。 Kingdom of the Netherlands by the Netherlands, Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten four-nation constitutes a complex country constitutional monarchy, is a native of the Netherlands at the core of national sovereignty。 Netherlands total land area of about 41,543 square kilometers (equivalent to 2/5 of Jiangsu Province area), located in northwestern Europe, with Germany, Belgium border。 By 2015, the total Dutch population of more than 1690 million, of which the immigrant population million, accounting%。
A rough calculation, the population density of 407 people / sq km, is one of the EU countries with the highest population density。
In recent years, the Netherlands has been tightening immigration policy, increase the difficulty of the exam, to extend the life of naturalization, in order to reduce the foreign population。
In order to survive and develop, trying to protect the Dutch had little land, to avoid being "drowned" in the sea at high tide。
Back in the 13th century, the Netherlands build dams blocking water, then drain the water, wind-driven water wheel inside the cofferdam。
For centuries, the Netherlands construction of the seawall up to 1800 kilometers, increasing land area of about 6,000 square kilometers。
It is and the Netherlands to the seawall, famous for windmills。 In addition, 54% of Dutch land used for agriculture, leaving only the building area of square kilometers, accounting for land area%。
Among these, increasingly limited land for housing construction。 More than two-thirds of families without shelter from the Netherlands high population density, and mainly concentrated in the western urban areas – "Randstad"。 Four largest cities – Amsterdam, Rotterdam port city, seat of government in The Hague and Utrecht are located in this area。 Here is the Netherlands with a major economic gathering, national income accounting for half of the country。 According to the Netherlands Bureau of Statistics data released in July, in June this year the average price of existing homes in the Netherlands for the million euros, with a year rose 2 percent compared with August 2008, the Netherlands is equivalent to the highest price point before the financial crisis。
Meanwhile, the "Randstad" There are about million units of housing stock, prices rose fastest, Rotterdam and Amsterdam which in the second quarter of this year, apartment prices rose reached%。 Recovery in the housing market has also stimulated the increase of brokerage houses in recent years, in 2017 the Netherlands has more than 9,000 brokers, since 2010, seven years increased by 10%。
2016 Netherlands number of sales of existing homes rose to nearly 10,000 sets, in mid-year 2017 sales remained at a high level, there are nearly ten thousand cash house sale。 2017 second quarter net sales rose% expected, real estate agents and managers optimistic about future sales, only 1% of practitioners think it will reduce turnover。 But labor scarcity is a new problem, the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics data show that in June, the unemployment rate fell to a percent of the workforce, this is the first time since the summer of 2011, less than 5% of people can be found in the labor market soon jobs。 Meanwhile, in 2016 the Netherlands wages rose percent to 6-year high。
The first quarter of 2017, real household disposable income rose percent, the increase since the second quarter of 2014, the 12th consecutive quarter。 As of 2014, statistics show that a total of Holland million households, the average population per household, with an average total income of million euros, the average disposable income of ten thousand euros。
But as of 2016, only 2.3 million households own their own home。 Interestingly, the number of new housing and the Netherlands are declining stock room, but no large-scale construction of residential housing associations and。
Netherlands "Housing Act" has three management mechanism, housing associations to accept the central government oversight of the financial and material, but also to accept the monitoring and management of local governments, in line with policy arrangements and residential space planning。 On the other hand, in order to ensure social housing associations in order to obtain a lower interest sufficient funds in capital markets development and construction of social housing projects, the Netherlands established the Central Housing Fund, the Social Housing Guarantee Fund, as well as three levels of government-guaranteed safety net system。 From the distribution of social housing, the Dutch social rental housing in large cities than important than small cities。 Due to the large urban population density, higher house prices, has its own housing more difficult, the lower the proportion of owner-occupied housing, the proportion of social housing generally higher。 Amsterdam (48%), Rotterdam (50%), The Hague (38%), Utrecht (35%) of the four cities the proportion of social rental housing is higher than the national level of 33%。
Dutch social housing association owns four major cities of social housing accounted for 20% of the total of all social housing。 "Livability" is expressly provided due to the shortage of land, it is necessary to ensure that the function of spatial planning and land space, the housing, economic activities, recreation, nature conservation, transportation, the environment and other land as much as possible balanced configuration。 Rational planning makes the Netherlands neither particularly large cities, nor small and isolated villages, facilities are more perfect。
Dutch Constitution, "the Government's concern to promote the provision of adequate housing"。
Inception, Dutch housing associations to provide a legal organization of affordable housing for the working class。
Local governments are also often involved in related transactions to meet the Netherlands in the low-end market rental housing needs of the population。 To the 1990s, due to increased cost of public housing, forcing the local government to give up direct control of public housing, and handed over the government's housing stock to a housing association。 Mid-1995, the Netherlands abolished the direct subsidies for new social housing to support the rent relief policy。
Most government-run housing associations, including local associations, the transition to non-profit corporation aggregate。 After a wave of consolidation, Dutch housing associations transformation into a hybrid organization – to perform common tasks and meet the market demand combined。
Housing Association by its own assets and borrow to meet the market demand to benefit, to fund large-scale non-profit public task。 Although each housing associations can set goals alone, but must be within a predetermined range of social housing management Act (BBSH)。
BBSH developed six basic tasks as housing associations:。。1 to ensure financial continuity; 2 to provide affordable housing for low-income tenants; 3 to maintain the quality of the stock room; 4 to give the lessee the right to speak on policy and housing management; 5 livability, improve and maintain the quality of life of the community ; 6 to provide housing and care for life。
Around six basic tasks, housing associations in different regions to develop their own portfolios based on regional situation。 Some housing associations tend to expand investment in the region; some tend to invest assigned to the relatively poor communities, through renovation, demolition and new construction to improve the quality of housing stock and increase owner-occupied housing in more affluent areas increased social Rental housing; some housing associations located in areas under reconstruction, its housing stock to be situated in an attractive community as much as possible, in order to facilitate the sale; some operators in administrative, but a large proportion of the housing stock is in a remote location small apartment, it will reduce bad assets through location and relocation sale, then a new large-family houses and houses suitable for small families。
It is worth mentioning that improve and maintain livability in your area houses all housing associations, as a separate public tasks are defined in the Act Dutch social housing by mid-1997。
Livability for residents includes the assessment of social and material conditions as well as the quality and safety of the living environment around them made。 Housing Association method can be used to improve and maintain the livability of society have the acquisition, sale, demolition, construction, renovation or repair of housing and other buildings。
While these investments also help to improve the quality of life of the community, but the main purpose is to improve the physical quality of the housing stock。 Revenue sharing and priority right to repurchase the Dutch social rental sector is larger than the neighboring countries, while low-income families own their own homes is relatively low proportion。
This phenomenon is largely due to a strong position in the past the social rental sector caused by, during which many low-income families have been pursuing their own housing。 Due to the relatively low rents and income-based rental subsidies, as well as a substantial increase in the 1990s, real estate prices and housing mortgage amount is gradually reduced, the conversion from the social rental sector to homeownership sector is becoming increasingly high threshold。 Since many households in the purchase of housing will reduce its economic capacity, so even increase revenue, they will still choose to live in rental housing in the community。 In 2002, Rotterdam Woobron Housing Association proposed the "customer choice" concept, and in 2003 it was renamed TeWoon。
TeWoon project and find room for tenants who can choose their own preferences provide a living form, as well as a separate purchase of all or a total of opportunity。
Now tenants and new tenants living forms that can be selected include traditional lease agreement; 5-year or 10-year fixed lease; in Koopgarant (Woobron founded to buy a house brokerage Fund) project to fold buy houses (new homes can have a percent discount rate), with a buy-back guarantee, may hold more than 50% of the property value section; market value of buying housing, and housing associations have the priority right to repurchase。
Since then, there have been more than 100 housing associations, founded by Woobron Koopgarant fund licensed the implementation of the project, and there are dozens of housing associations adopted this project。
Koopgarant low-income households at a lower price, less risky sectors into the owner occupants from the social rental sector, and do not spend transfer fees。 Housing Association definition of substandard housing is involved in any housing associations can only produce a small amount of value or no value-added housing。
These houses are often expensive, or not in the scope of management。 Not suitable for the sale of the stock of housing contains a limited life expectancy, it is necessary for large-scale renovation or reconstruction of 15 years, or sell housing stock split will result in the complex reconstruction programs。
In addition, housing TeWoon tag may bulk provided to tenants, or provided to those who find room following change in circumstances。 According to statistics Delft Research Center, from 2003 to 2007, Woobron housing associations to provide about 14,000 housing units in TeWoon project, 33% of the total number of housing。
By the end of 2006, housing sold by Koopgarant fund 4086 units, 233 units sold through the priority right to repurchase。 Buy-back guarantee and priority right to repurchase, provides two-way guarantee tenants and housing associations。
According to Statistics Netherlands data released in July, sales of existing homes in June were registered at the Land Registry, the Netherlands has 21686 sets; the first half of 2017 totaled 114,281 units, an increase of about 25%。 Dutch housing associations around its capital assets running。 Housing stock has a policy value and market value。
Policy value is the value of all future cash rental income (net of maintenance operating costs), a capital free to use and contains a buffer to avoid the value of housing associations in financial crisis。
The gap between policy and market value is potentially present, such as most houses take some time to empty out after household use, this part of the policy limit value can not be used to invest。
Koopgarant sales so that assets can be realized, and may return to the housing portfolio of housing associations in after a period of time。
This creates additional funds to construction and renovation of housing or provide rent subsidies or other public tasks。
Sales of social rental housing will not only improve the living environment, but also make communities more mixed population and avoid slums。